Patel, F. (2006) The development and assessment of a generic carbamazepine sustained release dosage form. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line drug used for the treatment of partial and tonic-clonic seizures. It is also the drug of choice for use during pregnancy and recommended for the treatment of seizure disorders in children. CBZ possesses the ability to induce metabolism of drugs that are transformed in the liver and has the unique ability to induce its own metabolism by a phenomenon known as ‘auto- induction’, where its biological half-life is significantly reduced during chronic administration. Large doses of CBZ are often prescribed as daily divided doses and this often adversely affects patient compliance, with the result that therapy is ineffective. A sustained-release dosage form containing CBZ is currently marketed as Tegretol® CR and the development of a generic product would provide patients with an equivalent product with a similar dosing frequency, at a reduced cost. Therefore, the development of a polymer-based matrix tablet was undertaken to produce a sustained-release dosage form of CBZ, since these dosage forms are relatively simple and cheap to produce when compared to other, more sophisticated forms of sustained-release technology. Preformulation studies were conducted to assess moisture content of excipients and dosage forms and to identify possible incompatibilities between CBZ and potential formulation excipients. Furthermore, studies were conducted to assess the potential for polymorphic transitions to occur during manufacture. Stability testing was conducted to assess the behaviour of the dosage forms under storage conditions that the product may be exposed to. Dissolution testing was undertaken using USP Apparatus 3, which allowed for a more realistic assessment and prediction of in vivo drug release rates. Samples were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatographic method that was developed and validated for the determination of CBZ. Tablets were manufactured by wet granulation and direct compression techniques, and the resultant drug release profiles were evaluated statistically by means of the f1 and f2 difference and similarity factors. The f2 factor was incorporated as an assessment criterion in the design of an artificial neural network that was used to predict drug release profiles and formulation composition. A direct compression tablet formulation was successfully adapted from a prototype wet granulation matrix formulation and a number of formulation variables were assessed to establish their effect(s) on the dissolution rate profile of CBZ that resulted from testing of the dosage forms. The particle size grade of CBZ was also investigated and it was ascertained that fine particle size grade CBZ showed improved drug release profiles when compared to the coarse grade CBZ which was desirable, since CBZ is a highly water insoluble compound. Furthermore, the impact of the viscosity grade and proportion of rate-controlling polymer, viz., hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was also investigated for its effect on drug release rates. The lower viscosity grade was found to be more appropriate for use with CBZ. The type of anti-frictional agent used in the formulations did not appear to affect drug release from the polymeric matrix tablets, however specific compounds may have an effect on the physical characteristics of the polymeric tablets. The resultant formulations did not display zero-order drug release kinetics and a first-order mathematical model was developed to provide an additional resource for athematical analysis of dissolution profiles. An artificial neural network was designed, developed and applied to predict dissolution rate profiles for formulation. Furthermore, the network was used to predict formulation compositions that would produce drug release profiles comparable to the reference product, Tegretol® CR. The formulation composition predicted by the network to match the dissolution profile of the innovator product was manufactured and tested in vitro. The formulation was further manipulated, empirically, so as to match the in vitro dissolution rate profile of Tegretol® CR, more completely. The test tablets that were produced were tested in two health male volunteers using Tegretol® CR 400mg as the reference product. The batch used for this “proof of concept” biostudy was produced in accordance with cGMP guidelines and the protocol in accordance with ICH guidelines. The test matrix tablets revealed in vivo bioavailability profiles for CBZ, however, bioequivalence between the test and reference product could not be established. It can be concluded that the polymeric matrix CBZ tablets have the potential to be used as a twice-daily dosage form for the treatment of relevant seizure disorders.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Additional Information:||Ph.D. (Pharmacy)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Carbamazepine, CBZ, pharmacokinetics, drugs, controlled release, dosage forms, tablets (Medicine), seizure disorders|
|Subjects:||Y Unknown > Subjects to be assigned|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Pharmacy|
|Supervisors:||Walker, R.B. (Prof.)|
|Deposited By:||Ms Michelle Booysen|
|Deposited On:||04 Jun 2009|
|Last Modified:||06 Jan 2012 16:20|
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