Studies in marine quinone chemistry

Sunassee, Suthananda Naidu (2010) Studies in marine quinone chemistry. PhD thesis, Rhodes Universityi.

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Abstract

This thesis is divided into two parts and the rationale of the research conducted is based on the cytotoxicity of the prenylated quinones 1.24-1.29, isolated from the South African nudibranch Leminda millecra, against oesophageal cancer cells. The first part (Chapters 2 and 3) of the thesis initially documents the distribution of cytotoxic and antioxidant prenylated quinones and hydroquinones in the marine environment. We have been able to show, for the first time, that these compounds can be divided into eight structural classes closely related to their phyletic distribution. Secondly, we attempted to synthesize the two marine natural products 1.24 and 1.26 in an effort to contribute to an ongoing collaborative search with the Division of Medical Biochemistry at the University of Cape Town for new compounds with anti-oesophageal cancer activity. Accordingly, we followed the published synthetic procedure for 1.26 and, although we were unable to reproduce the reported results, we have generated five new prenylated quinone analogues 3.53-3.55, 3.63 and 3.71, which are a potentially viable addition to our ongoing structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Moreover, we embarked on a 7Li NMR mechanistic study for the synthesis of 3.2 from 3.1 which rewarded us with an improved and reproducible methodology for this crucial reaction that is detailed in Chapter 3. The second part of this thesis (Chapters 4 and 5) is concerned with a synthetic, structural, electrochemical and biological exploration of the 1,4-naphthoquinone nucleus as a primary pharmacophore in our search for new chemical entities which can induce apoptosis in oesophageal cancer cells, thus contributing to our overall ongoing SAR study in this class of compounds. Seven new naphthoquinone derivatves (4.19, 4.30, 4.31, 4.33 and 4.46-4.48) of the natural products 2-deoxylapachol (2.44), lapachol (4.1) and β-lapachone (5.2) were synthesized and 2-(1`-hydroxy-`-phenylmethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (4.29) was found to be the most cytotoxic (IC50 1.5 μM) against the oesophageal cancer cell line WHCO1, while 5.2, which is currently in phase II clinical trials as an anticancer drug, was found to be similarly active (IC50 1.6 μM). Electrochemical investigations of the redox properties of the benzylic alcohol derivatives 4.29-4.31 indicated a higher reduction potential compared to their oxidized counterparts 4.45-4.48, and this finding has been correlated to the increased activity of 4.29-4.31 against the WHCO1 cell line. Additionally, 4.29 is synthetically more accessible than either 1.26 or 5.2 and potentially a lead compound in our search for new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents against oesophageal cancer

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Quinone, Marine pharmacy, Cancer treatment.
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Chemistry
ID Code:2241
Deposited By: Mrs Carol Perold
Deposited On:22 Nov 2011 14:36
Last Modified:01 Aug 2012 12:48
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