Skepu, Zoleka G. (2000) Characterization of amide bond hydrolysis in novel hydantoinase-producing bacteria. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.
This thesis describes a series of investigations into the amide bond-hydrolyzing activity of bacterial strains RU-KM1, RU-KM3L, RU-KM3S, and RU-OR, which were previously isolated for their ability to hydrolyze hydantoins to amino acids. The main aim of the study was to develop biotransformations with potential application in the production of enantiomerically pure amino acids and related compounds. Several compounds may be used as substrates by biocatalysts for the production of amino acids, such as hydantoins, amino nitriles, and amides. These compounds are not only important for amino acid production, but they may be used for production of other industrially important compounds, such as 2- arylpropionic acids, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Thus, the ability of the above-mentioned strains to hydrolyze these substrates was investigated, with the view to utilizing the maximum potential of these biocatalysts. The compounds used as substrates in the investigation are all essentially amides. Thus, the ability of the strains to hydrolyze imides, hydantoins, and amides, was investigated. In particular, imides have a structure which is very similar to that of hydantoins, and thus it was an objective of the study to determine whether these strains could hydrolyze imides. Imidehydrolyzing activity has only recently been discovered in microorganisms. Hydantoin conversion involves a two-step hydrolysis reaction which yields, initially, an Ncarbamylamino acid intermediate, and subsequently, an "-amino acid. The hydantoinhydrolyzing enzymes of a Pseudomonas putida strain, RU-KM3S, were characterized in a crude extract preparation and reaction conditions for its biocatalytic application were optimized. The optimum conditions for conversion of 5-methylhydantoin were found to be 3 hours at 40°C, with conversion yields greater than 50% achieved. The enzymes of RU-KM3S demonstrated considerable stability, retaining 80% of their activity after incubation at 40°C for 3 hours. The activities of the enzymes were increased by the addition of a detergent to the extraction medium, suggesting that the enzymes might be membrane-bound. The results of the determination of the metal-dependence of the hydantoinase and N-carbamylase of RUKM3S suggested that these enzymes required metal ions for activity, with metal ions such as Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Co2+ resulting in activation of the enzymes. However, Cu2+ and Fe2+ caused inactivation of these enzymes. The stereoselectivity of the enzymes was investigated, and the results suggested that the hydantoinase was non-selective, whereas the N-carbamylase was L-selective. The hydantoin substrate selectivity of RU-KM3S was compared to that of three other hydantoinase-producing bacteria, RU-KM1, RU-KM3L, and RU-OR. The four strains were able to hydrolyze all of the seven substrates tested. However, there was a difference in activity levels between crude extract preparations and whole cells, with crude extracts generally showing higher activity than whole cells, except in the case of RU-KM1. Some difference was also observed in the order of preference of substrates between whole cells and crude extracts. The preferred substrate for RU-KM1 whole cells was isopropylhydantoin, whereas the crude extract preparation preferentially hydrolyzed p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin. RU-KM3L whole cells achieved a higher conversion yield with isobutylhydantoin, whereas the crude extract achieved a higher yield with 5-t-butylhydantoin. RU-KM3S whole cells and crude extract preferentially hydrolyzed 5-n-butylhydantoin, although the yield was greater with the crude extract. The highest conversion yields were observed with RU-KM3S crude extract, with conversion yields of 71.6% and 100% for n-butylhydantoin and phydroxyphenylhydantoin, respectively.The ability of RU-KM1, RU-KM3L, and RU-KM3S to hydrolyze nitriles, initially to amides and subsequently to carboxylic acids, was investigated. These strains were demonstrated to be unable to utilize acrylonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile as nitrogen sources, but were able to hydrolyze acrylonitrile, propionitrile and acetonitrile, in resting cell reactions. Nitrile hydrolysis was demonstrated to be inducible in all three strains, and the enzyme system responsible for nitrile hydrolysis was proposed to be a nitrile hydratase-amidase system. Amidase activity in the four bacterial strains was investigated. The ability of RU-KM1, RUKM3L, RU-KM3S, and RU-OR to utilize amides as a nitrogen source was investigated, and the results showed that propionamide was a good nitrogen source for all four of the strains. Amide-hydrolyzing activity, by resting cells, was shown to be inducible by propionamide in all four strains. RU-KM3S demonstrated superior amide-hydrolyzing ability in that it hydrolyzed propionamide, acetamide, and acrylamide to a greater extent than the other strains. Resting cells of RU-KM1 and RU-OR were demonstrated to have the ability to hydrolyze the imide substrate, succinimide, and this imidase activity was found to be inducible. These strains were also able to utilize this imide as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, which is a novel finding, as to date, bacteria have only be reported to utilize imides as a carbon source. The identity of the enzyme system responsible for succinimide hydrolysis is not yet clear. In conclusion, the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes of RU-KM3S have been shown to be possibly membrane associated, which is a novel finding that has also been proposed in three other hydantoinase-producing strains in our laboratory. This study has shown that the Ncarbamylase of RU-KM3S is L-stereoselective, which, to our knowledge, is the first report of an L-stereospecific N-carbamylase in a Pseudomonas putida. Publication of these findings is already in progress. This is the first report on the study of imide hydrolysis in either an Agrobacterium tumefaciens or a Pseudomonas sp., and publications reporting these results are in preparation.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Amides, Hydrolysis, Hydantoin, Imides.|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QR Microbiology|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Biochemistry, Microbiology & Biotechnology|
|Deposited By:||Mrs Carol Perold|
|Deposited On:||23 Nov 2011 06:40|
|Last Modified:||06 Jan 2012 16:22|
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