Moore, Sean Douglas (2003) The development and evaluation of Cryptophlebia Leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) as a biological control agent for the management of false codling moth, Cryptophlebia Leucotreta, on citrus. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.
A granulovirus isolated from Cryptophlebia leucotreta larvae was shown through restriction endonuclease analysis to be a novel strain (CrleGV-SA). No more than one isolate could be identified from a laboratory culture of C. leucotreta. However, a preliminary examination of restricted DNA profiles of isolates from different geographical regions indicated some minor differences. In surface dose bioassays on artificial diet, LC50 and LC90 values with neonate larvae were estimated to be 4.095 x 103 OBs/ml and 1.185 x 105 OBs/ml respectively. LT50 and LT90 values with neonate larvae were estimated to be 4 days 22 h and 7 days 8 h, respectively. Detached fruit (navel orange) bioassays with neonate larvae indicated that virus concentrations that are likely to be effective in the field range from 1.08 x 107 to 3.819 x 1010 OBs/ml. In surface dose bioassays with fifth instar larvae LC50 and LC90 values were estimated to be 2.678 x 107 OBs/ml and 9.118 x 109 OBs/ml respectively. LT50 and LT90 values were estimated to be 7 days 17 h and 9 days 8 h, respectively. A new artificial diet for mass rearing the host was developed. Microbial contamination of diet was significantly reduced by adding nipagin and sorbic acid to the diet and by surface sterilising C. leucotreta eggs with Sporekill. Almost 20 % more eggs were produced from moths reared on the new diet compared to moths reared on the old diet. A further 9 % improvement in egg production and a reduction in the labour required to produce eggs, was made with the development of a new oviposition cage attached to the moth eclosion box. Virus was mass produced in fifth instar C. leucotreta larvae by surface inoculating diet with the LC90. When 300 individuals were placed onto inoculated diet, 56 % of them were recovered six to 11 days later as infected larvae. Mean larval equivalents was 1.158 x 1011 OBs/larva. When larvae and diet were harvested together, highest yields of virus were achieved at eight days after inoculation. Microbial contamination in semi-purified preparations of CrleGV ranged from 176211 to 433594 (OB:CFU ratio). Half-life of CrleGV in the field was estimated to be less than 1 day on the northern aspect of trees and between 3 - 6 days on the southern aspect. Original activity remaining (OAR) of the virus dropped below 50 % after 5 days on the northern aspect of trees and was still at 69 % on the southern aspect of trees after 3 weeks. In field trials, CrleGV reduced C. leucotreta infestation of navel oranges by up to 60 % for a period of 39 days. CrleGV in combination with augmentation of the C. leucotreta egg parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae, reduced infestation by 70 %. The integration of CrleGV into an integrated pest management (IPM) system for the management of C. leucotreta on citrus is proposed.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Cryptophlebia leucotreta, Citrus, Pests|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QL Zoology > Invertebrates > Insects|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Biochemistry, Microbiology & Biotechnology|
|Deposited By:||Mrs Carol Perold|
|Deposited On:||09 Jan 2012 13:12|
|Last Modified:||09 Jan 2012 13:12|
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