Application of dermal microdialysis and tape stripping methods to determine the bioavailability and/or bioequivalence of topical ketoprofen formulations

Tettey-Amlalo, Ralph Nii Okai. (2009) Application of dermal microdialysis and tape stripping methods to determine the bioavailability and/or bioequivalence of topical ketoprofen formulations. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.

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Abstract

The widespread acceptance of topical formulations intended for local and/or regional activity has prompted renewed interest in developing a model to determine the bioavailability of drugs in order to establish bioequivalence as a means of evaluating formulation performance of multisource products and also for use during formulation development. Current in vivo techniques such as blister suction and skin biopsy amongst others used to determine the bioavailability and/or bioequivalence of topical formulations are either too invasive to generate appropriate concentration-time profiles or require large numbers of study subjects thereby making the study expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, there are currently no sampling techniques that can demonstrate dermal bioavailability and/or bioequivalence of topical formulations intended for local and/or regional activity. Dermal microdialysis is a relatively new application of microdialysis that permits continuous monitoring of endogenous and/or exogenous solutes in the interstitial fluid. The technique is involves the implantation of semi-permeable membranes which are perfused with an isotonic medium at extremely slow flow rates and collection of microlitre sample volumes containing diffused drugs. Tape stripping, a relatively older technique, has been extensively used in comparative bioavailability studies of various topical formulations. However, due to shortcomings arising from reproducibility and inter-subject variation amongst others, the published FDA guidance outlining the initial protocol was subsequently withdrawn. The incorporation of transepidermal water loss with tape stripping has garnered renewed interest and has been used for the determination of drug bioavailability from a number of topical formulations. Hence the primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate microdialysis sampling and tape stripping techniques, including the incorporation of the determination of transepidermal water loss, to assess the dermal bioavailability of ketoprofen from topical gel formulations and to develop models for bioequivalence assessment. A rapid UPLC-MS/MS method with requisite sensitivity for the analysis of samples generated from dermal microdialysis was developed and validated which accommodated the microlitre sample volumes collected. An HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the analysis of samples generated from the in vitro microdialysis and in vivo tape stripping studies. The work presented herein contributes to a growing body of scientific knowledge seeking to develop a model for the determination of bioequivalence of pharmaceutically equivalent topical formulations intended for local and/or regional activity in human subjects

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Drugs, Transdermal medication, Liquid chromatography
Subjects:R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Pharmacy
ID Code:2607
Deposited By: Mrs Carol Perold
Deposited On:16 Apr 2012 10:36
Last Modified:16 Apr 2012 10:36
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