The establishment of normative data on Xhosa-speaking high school learners using the ImPACT 3.0 programme

Salman-Godlo, Noluthando Cikizwa (2006) The establishment of normative data on Xhosa-speaking high school learners using the ImPACT 3.0 programme. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.




Concussion is a common form of brain injury, especially amongst sports players of all age groups. ImPACT is a valid and reliable measure of a variety of cognitive functions commonly affected by such injuries, which allows for objective return-to-play decision making (Iverson, Lovell, & Collins, 2003). However, studies show that the transfer of such tests from one ethnic group to another without appropriate standardization is highly problematic (Ardila, 1995). Thus, the relative absence of South African normative data for the ImPACT 3.0 programme is an issue for concern. Consequently, this study aimed to establish norms for semi-rural Xhosa-speaking schoolboys with an advantaged education (ages 14, 16 and 18) for the ImPACT 3.0 programme as administered in English. Administrative and linguistic difficulties that were experienced by individuals during completion of the battery were also identified. Finally, the study included a comparison of the percentile scores of this sample to the USA norms for boys of a similar age group. Subtests scores were generated for 70 schoolboys and the data were then subjected to statistical analysis. A significant difference between English proficiency of the Grade 8 and Grade 12 boys was found. This indicates the importance of including an English proficiency test with the ImPACT battery when assessing such populations. No other significant differences were found between these age group samples. Although this requires further investigation, the comparison of the USA and SA percentiles suggests the use of local norms for this population. South African boys in this study consistently scored lower than the USA sample. Finally, it is recommended that symptom selfreports should be verbally investigated with each boy after testing, given indications of comprehension problems. In closing, limitations and future possible studies are discussed.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Brain, Concussion, South Africa, Sports, Sports injuries, Neuropsychological tests, ImPACT 3.0
Subjects:B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Humanities > Psychology
ID Code:2764
Deposited By: Ms Chantel Clack
Deposited On:07 May 2012 07:26
Last Modified:07 May 2012 07:26
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