The development of an orodispersible sildenafil citrate tablet intended for paediatric use

Dagnolo, Bianca (2012) The development of an orodispersible sildenafil citrate tablet intended for paediatric use. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.




Sildenafil citrate (SC) is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that is used to treat pulmonary hypertension (PH) in paediatric patients. The purpose of these studies was to develop a formulation and manufacture an orodispersible tablet (ODT) that can be easily administered to neonates and children with PH. The advantages of ODT dosage forms include ease of administration, rapid dissolution of the API, SC. Furthermore the dosage form can be taken without water which is beneficial to patients without immediate access to potable fluids. A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and selective reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and was successfully used for the analysis of SC as raw material and in SC containing pharmaceutical dosage forms. Preformulation studies were performed on SC, alone and in combination with potential excipients that could be used to make tablets. Investigations into potential interactions between SC and the excipients were performed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). DSC results revealed that SC was compatible with all potential excipients except mannitol and magnesium stearate. However these interactions were not observed with IR and therefore it was concluded that the interactions were induced by the high temperatures that DSC operates at. Particle size and shape was also established by use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and flow properties were monitored by calculating Carr’s Index (CI) and the Hausner Ratio (HR). Direct compression was used as the method of manufacture for SC tablets as this approach is simple and the most economic production approach. The powder blends were assessed for bulk and tapped density and the CI and HR were used to determine the flowability of the blends. The quality attributes of the resultant tablets that were monitored included uniformity of weight, friability, crushing strength, tensile strength, disintegration, wetting and in vitro dispersion times. Design of Experiments is an efficient statistical approach that has become a popular tool used in the pharmaceutical industry to optimize formulation compositions, as it allows for the investigation of several input factors at the same time whilst not using the tedious and traditional “ modification of one variable at a time” approach. A Central composite experimental design was chosen as the most appropriate means to optimize the formulation as it produces more accurate results as opposed to other experimental designs approaches as input factors are investigated at five different levels. Through the use of mathematical modelling, optimum concentrations of disintegrant(s) and an appropriate blending time were established. Analysis of the data from the experimental design and mathematical modelling studies reveal that no changes in disintegrant concentration or blending time altered the disintegration time of the formulation to any significant extent. This result is most likely due to the fact that the critical disintegrant concentration has been reached and increasing the disintegrant concentration further has no effect on disintegration time. It was also established that a change in the concentration of CMS and CRP altered the wetting time of the tablet significantly. Finally it was noted that there was a linear relationship between blending time and the uniformity of content of the tablets produced in these studies. The optimized product was a white tablet with a diameter of 7.31 mm with a thickness of 2.80mm.The dosage form had no visible cracks or evidence of picking or sticking. The tablet exhibits suitable friability and tensile strength while exhibiting a disintegration time of only 8s. Therefore an orodispersible tablet containing SC intended for paediatric use has been successfully developed, manufactured and optimized through the use of preformulation studies, appropriate quality control monitoring and mathematical modelling. These formulations require further optimization in respect of addition of flavours and or additional sweetening agents.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Sildenafil citrate, Pulmonary hypertension, Paediatric patients, Formulation, Manufacture, Tablet, Orodispersible, Neonates, Children, Water, Differential scanning calorimetry, Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Design of Experiments, Preformulation studies, Quality control, Mathematical modelling
Subjects:R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Pharmacy
Supervisors:Walker, R.B.
ID Code:2990
Deposited By: Philip Clarke
Deposited On:18 Jun 2012 08:59
Last Modified:18 Jun 2012 08:59
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