Potts, Warren Mason (1998) A nutritional evaluation of effluent grown algae and zooplakton as feed ingredients for Xiphohorous helleri, Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia velifera (Pisces : Poeciliidae). Masters thesis, Rhodes University.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of algae and zooplankton grown in an algal integrated ponding system for poeciliids. The available information on the nutritional requirements of poeciliids was compared with a proximate analysis of the algae and zooplankton. The effluent grown algae and zooplankton had a crude protein value of 41.47 ± 0.2% and 36.84 ± 0.3%, a lipid content of 4.8 ±. 0.4% and 11.1 ± 0.8% and a carbohydrate content of 35.13 ± 0.8% and 31.06 ± 0.6% respectively. These values compared favourably with those of the known nutritional requirements of poeciliids. To test if the nutritional value of the algae and zooplankton in the AIPS was constant, the species composition of the algae and the crude protein content of the algae and zooplankton in the high rate oxidation ponds were measured monthly and bi-weekly for a year respectively. The species composition remained fairly stable for the duration of the experiment and the average protein composition of the algae and zooplankton was 43.4 ± 4.4% and 38.6 ± 2.8% respectively. This indicated that the algae and zooplankton in the AIPS provided high protein biomass through the year. The quality of the effluent grown algal and zooplankton biomass was evaluated by analysing their amino acid composition and comparing it with the amino acid composition of the body tissue of X. helleri. With respect to the amino acid composition of the body tissue of X. helleri, the amino acid profile of the algae had a 69% and the zooplankton a 63% similarity. The quality of the pure algal and zooplankton protein was also tested biologically, by feeding them directly to poeciliids during a ten week growth trial. The algae and zooplankton diets did not result in adequate growth compared to poeciliids which were fed a formulated control diet. The initial growth trial also evaluated the effect of processing on the chemical composition of the algae and its biological effect on fish fed with it. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition of fresh and sun dried algae and this was reflected in the growth rates of the fish which did not differ significantly. Freeze dried algae had a lower crude protein content than fresh and sun dried algae and a poorer amino acid composition. Fish fed freeze dried algae exhibited poorer growth and survival in comparison to the other treatments. The gut transit times of X. helleri and the gastric evacuation times of poeciliids were determined using colour dyes incorporated in the diet and by sacrificing fish at predetermined intervals after feeding respectively. The gut transit time of X. helleri fed a sun dried algal diet and a formulated diet was 225 ± 8.55 minutes and 261.93 ± 10.86 minutes respectively. The gastric evacuation times of X. helleri, P. reticulata and P. velifera were 7, 9 and 8 hours respectively. Since the maximum amount of food in the hindgut after feeding was detemined to be 3, 5 and 3 hours in X. helleri, P. reticulata and P. velifera respectively, fish were sacrificed at these times in the digestibility study. The digestibility of sun dried algae was determined using 1% chromic oxide as an internal marker in the algae. The apparent crude protein digestibility of sun dried effluent grown algae ranged from 65%-75% in the three poeciliid species. Based on the results of the chemical and biological analysis of the algae and zooplankton, conventional diets incorporating algae at 5% and 20% protein inclusion levels were formulated. These diets and a treatment in which zooplankton, reared in the AlPS were fed as a dietary supplement to a formulated diet were fed to poeciliids for twelve weeks. No significant differences in the growth of poeciliids fed any of the test diets were observed. It was concluded that the algae could be incorporated into poeciliid formulated diets up to level of 20% protein inclusion without any negative effect on the growth of the fish. The chemical and biological evaluation of the algae suggested that it had a similar nutritional quality to soyabean meal. Poeciliid growth was not enhanced with a zooplankton supplement, however a possible low feeding rate by poeciliids on the zooplankton as a result of their small size may have affected the result. The colour enhancement potential of effluent grown algae and zooplankton was evaluated biologically in ten and twelve week growth trials using visual observation (31 people) and by using a chromameter. While pure, sun dried algae significantly enhanced the colour of P. reticulata, no significant differences in the colour of poeciliids were observed or recorded when fish were fed diets incorporating sun dried algae up to levels of 20% protein inclusion. The effect of effluent grown algae and zooplankton on poeciliid health was also tested biologically in the ten and twelve week growth trials. The high mortalities (75%-84%) recorded for X. helleri when fed the pure algal and zooplankton diets were considered to be as a result of the nutritional inadequacy of the diets since there were significantly less mortalities in fish fed the formulated control diet and 63% of the fish that died during the course of the trial were emaciated. In addition, fewer mortalities (10%-40%) were recorded in X. helleri fed the nutritionally adequate formulated diets in the twelve week growth trial. No symptoms of disease were recorded in the twelve week growth trial and the algae was considered to have no toxicological or pathological effects on poeciliids. Centrifugation, sand filtration, sedimentation, microstraining and biological harvest were evaluated as methods of small scale algal harvest from the high rate oxidation ponds. Algae could be harvested most efficiently with little associated labour by sedimentation (without flocculating agents) and by microstraining with 60μm mesh. Effluent grown algae can replace conventional feed ingredients up to a level of 20% protein inclusion without negatively effecting the growth, colour, health or survival of poeciliids.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Poeciliidae, Zooplankton, Algae|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QL Zoology > Chordates. Vertebrates > Fishes|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Ichthyology & Fisheries Science|
|Deposited By:||Ms Chantel Clack|
|Deposited On:||22 Jun 2012 06:48|
|Last Modified:||22 Jun 2012 06:48|
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