Assessment of amoxycillin suppositories

Webster, Jessica Angela (1997) Assessment of amoxycillin suppositories. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.




The investigations in this dissertation have been 'conducted to investigate the formulation and analysis of a paediatric amoxycillin suppository. The oral administration of antibiotics to young children can at times be roblematic. Compliance is sometimes poor because of a sore throat, nausea, vomiting, a high fever or a dislike for the taste or smell of the medicine:- In-such cases the rectal administration of an antibiotic could provide an alternative route of administration that avoids some of the problems that affect oral administration. Difficulties associated with rectal administration are bioavailability, local irritation, acceptability to patients and rejection of the dosage form. Few data, however, are available on the usefulness in children of suppositories in general, and antibiotic suppositories in particular. The areas of investigation have included the formulation of an amoxycillin suppository in various fatty bases, the quantitation of amoxycillin in both aqueous solution and human serum, assessment of stability of amoxycillin in stored aqueous and biological samples, in vitro drug release testing of suppositories, and bioavailability and pharmacokinetics following administration to human subjects of capsule, suppository, oral suspension and rectal suspension dosage forms. Suppositories containing 250 mg amoxycillin were prepared in theobroma oil and in the semisynthetic bases Witepso[ W35, Suppocire A32, Novata BD and Novata 299. The in vitro release characteristics of amoxycillin from these lipophilic suppository formulations were investigated using the USP rotating basket method. The dissolution of a drug from a solid dosage unit is an important parameter affecting drug bioavialability. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used as the main analytical technique. An original HPLC method for analysis of amoxycillin in aqueous solution, using ultraviolet detection at 230 nm was develcfped. The validated method was a~plied to the determination of the stability of aqueous amoxycillin solutions, and was utilized to determine the amount of drug released during dissolution testing. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a technique commonly used in preformulation studies. Dissolution testing was used in conjunction with DSC to select a suppository base suitable for formulation with amoxycillin trihydrate. An HPLC method for analysis of amoxycillin in human serum using UV detection at 230 nm is presented. The method involves a solid phase extraction procedure followed by chromatography on a reversed phase column. The limit of sensitivity of 0.3 ILg/mL in serum is sufficiently sensitive to monitor serum concentrations of amoxycillin in humans after the administration of a single 250 mg oral dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from data obtained following the administration of a capsule and oral suspension. These parameters were consistent with previously published results. Following administration of a lipophilic suppository and a rectal suspension, to human volunteers, it was concluded that amoxycillin trihydrate is not readily absorbed from the rectum. Further investigations into the modification of the suppository dosage form with absorption enhancers to improve rectal absorption of amoxycillin, as well as elucidation of the mechanism of absorption of the drug, could assist in improving this formulation so that it is suitable for paediatric use

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Amoxycillin suppositories Solid dosage forms
Subjects:R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Pharmacy
Supervisors:Dowse, R. and Walker, R.B.
ID Code:3142
Deposited By: Mrs Carol Perold
Deposited On:24 Jul 2012 12:40
Last Modified:24 Jul 2012 12:40
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