A review of sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world with special emphasis on recent discoveries outside the U.S.A.

Daglioglu, Yasar Mehmet (1996) A review of sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world with special emphasis on recent discoveries outside the U.S.A. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.

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Abstract

Most of the Great Basin sediment-hosted gold deposits are located along well defined, northwest-striking trends. Trends coincide with faults, intrusive rocks and magnetic anomalies. Sedimentary host rocks are siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate, argillic, interbedded chert and shales. Silty bedded silty dolomites, limestone and carbonaceous shales are the most favourable hosts. High, and locally, low-angle faults are very important structural features related to the formation of the ore bodies. High-angle faults are conduits of hydrothermal fluids which react, shatter and prepare the favourable host rock. Decalcification, silicification, and argillization are the most common hydrothermal alteration types. Jasperoid (intense silica replacement) is a significant characteristic; not all of these deposits are gold-bearing. Most deposits contain both oxidized and unoxidized ore. Fine grained disseminated pyrite, arsenian pyrite, and carbonaceous material are the most common hosts for gold in many deposits. These deposits are also characterized by high Au/Ag ratios, notable absence of base metal and geochemical associations of Au, As, Sb, Hg, Ba and TI. Recently numerous sediment-hosted gold deposits have been recognized in different regions of the world. They vary in their size, grades, textwe, host rock lithology, degrees of structural control and chemical characteristics. However, they have many common features which are very similar to the general characteristics of sediment-hosted gold deposits in the Great Basin, U.S.A. Besides these similarities, several unusual features are recorded in some newly discovered deposits elsewhere, such as predominant fault controlled paleokarst related mineralization and the lack of two very common trace elements (Hg, TI) in Lobongan/Alason, Indonesia; and Early Proterozoic age metamorphosed host rocks and lack of Sb in Maoling, China. The discovery of the deep ores in the Post-Betze and Rabbit Canyon, Nevada, proposed sediment-hosted Au emplacement at deeper level (4 ± 2 km; Kuehn & Rose, 1995) combined with a lack of field evidence for paleowater table and paleosurface features has ruled out a shallow epithermal origin. Recent discoveries in other parts of the world throw important new light on the ongoing genetic problems. Intrusive rocks are present in nearly all sediment-hosted gold deposits. Numerous intrusion-centred districts worldwide are characterized by tWo or more different mineralization types and consequently by metal zoning. Sediment-hosted gold deposits are proposed as a distal part of intrusion-centred magmatic hydrothermal systems (Sillitoe &Bonham, 1990).

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Gold ores, Sedimentation, Deposition
Subjects:Q Science > QE Geology
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Geology
ID Code:3422
Deposited By: Mrs Carol Perold
Deposited On:19 Sep 2012 13:34
Last Modified:19 Sep 2012 13:34
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