Meyer, Annalene (2012) The synthesis of α-alkoxy and α-aminostannanes as precursors to Novel Chromium Fischer Carbenes. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.
The present study involves the use of main group organometallics: organostannanes and organolithiums as precursors to chromium Fischer carbene complexes. Fischer carbenes are well stabilized by the π‐donor substituents such as alkoxy and amino groups and low oxidation state metals such as Group 6 (Chromium, Molybdenum or Tungsten). Carbenes are an important intermediate in the synthesis of a range of compounds through cyclopropanations, insertions, coupling and photochemical reactions. Synthesis and successful characterisation of three α‐alkoxystannanes was achieved via nucleophilic addition of tributylstannyllithium to the respective aldehydes, followed by an immediate MOM protection of the resulting alcohol. Six α‐aminostanannes were synthesised, consisting of N‐BOC, N‐acetyl and N‐ethyl derivatives of pyrrolidine and piperidine, via α‐lithiation and subsequent tinlithium transmetallation in the presence of TMEDA. The ¹³C NMR analysis highlighted an interesting phenomenon of tin‐carbon coupling that revealed unique structural information of both types of stannanes. DFT analysis was completed on the series of stannanes; a predicted frequency analysis was obtained which complemented the experimental Infra‐red data in elucidation of the compounds. The α‐alkoxy and α‐aminostannanes provided stable precursors to the organolithiums required for the synthesis of the novel Fischer chromium carbenes. The organolithiums were obtained via tinlithium exchange at low temperatures, followed by the addition of chromium hexacarbonyl to form the acylpentacarbonyl‐chromate salt. Alkylation of this intermediate using a Meerwein salt, Me₃OBF₄, gave rise to the novel Fischer chromium carbene complexes. Fischer chromium carbenes derived from the two isomeric butyl and isobutyl stannanes and the two N‐ethyl α‐aminostannanes were successfully synthesised. The difficulty encountered in the purification of the Fischer carbene complexes hindered the full characterisation, due to the presence of a by‐product, tetrabutyltin.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Alkoxides, Organometallic compounds, Carbenes, Chromium, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Organolithium|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QD Chemistry|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Chemistry|
|Deposited By:||Ms Chantel Clack|
|Deposited On:||27 Sep 2012 05:52|
|Last Modified:||27 Sep 2012 05:52|
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