The dissociation of ammonium salts and their effect on the physiology and biochemistry of L-lysine synthesis by Corynebacterium glutamicum FP6

Kenyon, Colin Peter (1994) The dissociation of ammonium salts and their effect on the physiology and biochemistry of L-lysine synthesis by Corynebacterium glutamicum FP6. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.

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The availability and assimilation of NH₄⁺ plays an integral role in the growth of microorganisms and the production of amino acids by these organisms. This study investigated the dissociation of NH₄⁺in aqueous solution, its availability and effect on the enzymes of NH₄⁺ assimilation and its influence on lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.In aqueous solution the extent of dissociation of NH₄C1, {NH₄)₂S0₄ and (NH₄)₂HP0₄ increases with decreasing concentration. A model is proposed for the dissociation of these molecules. It is believed that at very low concentrations, dissociation to NH₃ plus the respective counter-ions occurs. At these low concentrations the NH₃ acts as the substrate for glutamine synthetase. At the higher concentrations dissociation is to NH₄⁺ which is the substrate for glutamate dehydrogenase. At these higher concentrations the enzyme activities obtained for glutamate dehydrogenase, at equivalent concentrations of the above ammonium salts, were different when based on the total concentration of NH₄⁺, and similar when based on the concentration of free NH₄⁺. L-Iysine occurs in the +1 ionic form, at pH 7,2. The lysine which is produced during fermentation associates with the anionic counter-ion of the ammonium salt used. The concentration of the free NH₄⁺ in the media appears to affect both the rate of lysine synthesis as well as the yield. The lysine fermentation occurs in two stages; a growth (or replicative) phase, during which very little lysine is produced, and a lysine synthesis (or maturation) phase. During the lysine synthesis phase there is no cell replication, however an increase in the mass of the biomass produced is apparent. Evidence is provided for the possible concomitant synthesis of the the cell wall polymer, glycerol teichoic acid, and lysine. On the basis of this evidence, a nucleotide balance is proposed for lysine and teichoic acid synthesis. The replicative phase and the maturation phase have to be effectively separated to obtain optimal lysine yields and titres. It is believed that teichoic acid synthesis during the replicative phase must be kept to a minimum for optimal yields and titres to be obtained, and on completion of the cell wall and therefore teichoic acid synthesis, lysine synthesis ceases. As the production of lysine appears to be affected by the NH₄⁺ concentration in the culture media, it is proposed that a futile cycle may exist around the transport and assimilation of the NH₄⁺. If the fermentations are run at low free NH₄⁺ concentrations, it was shown that lysine yields of 0,66, on the glucose utilised, are attainable during the fermentation.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Growth, Microorganisms, Amino acids, Lysine production, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Ammonium salts, Dissociation, Counter-ions, Glutamine synthetase, Glutamate dehydrogenase, Aqueous solution, Lysine, Glycerol teichoic acid, Teichoic acid
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD241 Organic chemistry > QD415 Biochemistry
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Biochemistry, Microbiology & Biotechnology
ID Code:3732
Deposited By: Philip Clarke
Deposited On:22 Oct 2012 13:55
Last Modified:22 Oct 2012 13:55
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