Knauer, Jens (1994) Development of an artificial weaning diet for the South African abalone, Haliotis midae (Haliotidae:Gastropoda). Masters thesis, Rhodes University.
An adequate supply of diatoms during the weaning stage (generally 5 - 10 mm shell length (SL)) is one of the primary constraints to the commercial culture of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. Because of the seriousness of the problem, a project aimed at the development of an artificial weaning diet was initiated. Initially, the chemical composition (proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral element profile) of juvenile H. midae was analyzed, as a general lack of such information was identified in a review. Due to the lack of knowledge on the nutritional requirements of H. midae, the formulation of the weaning diet was based on the essential amino acid (EAA) pattern of the shucked tissue, and the known nutrient requirements of haliotids. Subsequently, a water stable gel and pellet form of the diet were developed. The best water stability of a gel was obtained with a 1:3 agar/gelatine mixture which retained 70.7 ± 2.7 % of its dry weight after 24 h. Starch based pellets, however, retained 89.0 ± 0.6 % of their dry weight after 24 h. In a comparative growth trial, pellets produced a significantly better increase in SL and weight than gels after only 15 days. This was probably due to the better water stability of pellets, which resulted in a better nutritional quality than in gels. The feeding behaviour on both forms of the diet did not differ. Activity patterns were exclusively nocturnal and feeding frequency was consistently low. The percentage composition of the pelleted weaning diet, on a dry weight basis, was 5 % casein, 15 % gelatine, 15 % fish meal, 10 % Spirulina spp., 2.5 % fish oil, 2.5 % sunflower oil, 21.0 % dextrin, 23.0 % starch, 4.0 % of a mineral and 2.0 % of a vitamin mixture. The correlation coefficient between the EAA pattern of H. midae and the dietary EAA pattern was r⁷= 0.8989. Pellets were fed to juveniles in a 30 day growth trial to study the effect of photoperiod (12, 16, 20 and 23 hours of darkness) on growth and general nutritional parameters. A comparative experiment feeding diatoms was conducted under a 12hL: 12hD light regime at the same time. The SL and weight of the juveniles did not increase significantly with an increase in hours of darkness. The growth of juveniles fed on pellets did not differ significantly from those fed on diatoms. Percentage feed consumption (PFC), percentage feeding rate (PFR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and percentage protein deposited (PPD) were determined for the animals fed on pellets. None of the parameters were significantly affected by photoperiod. However, there were trends in that PFC increased with longer periods of darkness, while PPD decreased. The FCRs (0.44 ± 0.04 to 0.60 ± 0.19) and PERs (5.06 ± 1.74 to 6.64 ± 0.77) indicated that juveniles used the feed, and in particular the protein, very efficiently. Photoperiod did not have an effect on the specific activity of the digestive enzymes amylase, protease and lipase. The specific activity of amylase in the juveniles fed on diatoms was significantly higher than in the pellet fed groups. This was surprising as the main carbohydrate of diatoms is the ß-(l-3) glucan chrysolaminarin, and not starch, a ß-(l-4) glucan. Protease specific activity, on the other hand, was significantly higher in the pellet fed groups, indicating an ability to adapt to the high protein content in the artificial diet (35.48 %), compared to diatoms which had a protein content of 5 %. The specific activity of lipase did not differ significantly between groups, probably because of a similar lipid concentration (5 - 10 %) in diatoms and pellets. Finally, the effect of stocking density, ranging from 1250 to 10,000 juveniles/m2, on the growth of juveniles was evaluated. A model of hatchery productivity was developed based on this investigation. Hatchery productivity was defined as the number of juveniles per unit space reared through to the grow-out stage per unit time. The model predicted that maximum productivity would be achieved at a stocking density of 10,000 juveniles/m2. The results have shown that H. midae can be successfully weaned on an artificial diet, as the growth on the diet was not significantly different to growth obtained on diatoms. Long-term growth trials are needed to confirm these results. The importance of standardized experiments on the nutritional requirements and digestibility of abalone was emphasized. The importance of improved artificial diets, optimal culture conditions, as well as the application of biotechnological techniques to further abalone aquaculture was highlighted.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Abalone, Haliotis midae South Africa, Supply, Diatoms, Artificial weaning diet, Chemical composition, Analysis, Nutritional requirements, Essential amino acid, Gel, Pellet, Feeding, Behaviour, Photoperiod, Growth, Digestive enzymes, Amylase, Protease, Lipase, Stocking density, Culture conditions, Biotechnological techniques, Aquaculture|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QL Zoology > Invertebrates|
S Agriculture > SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Ichthyology & Fisheries Science|
|Supervisors:||Hecht, Thomas and Duncan, John and Britz, Peter|
|Deposited By:||Philip Clarke|
|Deposited On:||31 Oct 2012 06:12|
|Last Modified:||31 Oct 2012 06:12|
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