Li, Jian-Chuan (1996) Three dimensional kinetic analysis of asymmetrical lifting. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.
Manual lifting is dynamic in nature and involves asymmetrical loading of the human body. This study investigated kinematic and kinetic characteristics of asymmetrical lifting in three dimensions, and then constructed a 3-D biomechanical force model of the lower back which is capable of quantifying torsional stress on the human spine. Eleven healthy adult male manual workers were recruited as subjects and lifted a 10kg load placed at the sagittal plane (0°) and at 30°, 60° and 90° lateral planes to the right, from 150mm and 500mm initial lift heights, respectively, to an 800mm high bench in the sagittal plane. Subjects' spinal motions and the trajectorial movements of the load in three-dimensional space were monitored simultaneously by a Lumbar Motion Monitor and a V-scope Motion Analyzer. Generally, the spinal motion factors increased as a function of increasing task asymmetry and differed (p < 0.05) between the lower (150mm) and higher (500mm) levels in the sagittal plane. In all asymmetrical conditions the motion factors showed a dramatic increase at the 500mm level compared to the increase at the 150mm level. The rates of increase in the horizontal and frontal planes were greater than those in the sagittal plane. Task asymmetry had a significant effect on the spinal kinematic parameters in the frontal plane at the two lift heights, and only at the high level (500mm) in the horizontal plane, with exception of average acceleration. Initial lift height exerted a significant effect on peak velocity and acceleration in both frontal and horizontal planes and on range of motion in the horizontal plane. Kinetic characteristics of the object being lifted in three-dimensions increased with an increase in task asymmetry. The increase was more dramatic in the lateral direction in the horizontal plane. However, motion factors in the vertical direction dominated the full range of the lift, irrespective of task asymmetry and lift height. The kinetic measures differed (p < 0.05) between the lower (1 50mm) and the higher (500mm) levels in the vertical direction except for average force. Task asymmetry had a significant effect on dynamic measures in the anterior-posterior direction. Both task asymmetry and lift height had a significant effect on dynamic motion factors in the lateral direction. From insights gained in the empirical study a three-dimensional biomechanical force model of the lower back was constructed based on a mechanism of muscle force re-orientation in the lumbar region. Acknowledging that the lower back is designed to be able to rotate around its longitudinal axis, the proposed model accounts for compression and shear forces and a torsional moment. The model has similar predictability to Schultz and Andersson's (1981) model when the human trunk exerts only a flexion-extension moment in the sagittal plane, but additionally predicts dramatic increases in shear forces, oblique muscle forces and torsional moment under asymmetrical lifting conditions which the Schultz-Andersson model does not. The increase rates in these forces and moment are not linearly related over task asymmetric angle.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Manual lifting, Human body, Characteristics, Kinematic, Kinetic, Lower back, Three-dimensional, Biomechanical force model, Spine, Torsional stress, Load, Trajectorial movements, Trunk|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QP Physiology|
|Divisions:||Faculty > Faculty of Science > Human Kinetics & Ergonomics|
|Supervisors:||Charteris, Jack and Scott, Pat|
|Deposited By:||Philip Clarke|
|Deposited On:||02 Nov 2012 06:16|
|Last Modified:||02 Nov 2012 06:16|
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