Cell-free biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) in extracts of flavedo from Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck

Richardson, Gaynor Rose-Marie (1996) Cell-free biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) in extracts of flavedo from Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck. PhD thesis, Rhodes University.

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The biosynthetic origin of the plant growth regulator abscisic acid remains equivocal and almost nothing is known about the enzymes involved in this process. The present research programme describes the development of a cell-free system, capable of synthesizing abscisic acid and attempts to provide further information about the biochemistry and enzymology of this important biosynthetic pathway. Cell-free extracts were prepared either directly from the flavedo (crude) or from an acetone powder derived from flavedo, of mature coloured fruits of Citrus sinensis L. cv. Midknight and incubated with mevalonic acid, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, famesylpyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, ß-carotene and 1',4'-trans-abscisic acid diol. The neutral and acidic products formed were purified by thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-electron capture and unequivocally identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abscisic acid, 1',4'-trans-abscisic acid diol and phaseic acid were unequivocally identified as the major acidic products formed in this cell-free system. The acid fraction also contained xanthoxin acid. Labelled and unlabelled ß-carotene was converted into the neutral compounds xanthoxin and xanthoxin alcohol. In addition. high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array analYSis of the oxy-carotenoid fraction revealed the complete spectrum of ß, ß-carotenoids induding zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin with accumulation of an oxygenated carotenoid tentatively identified as 9- cis-violaxanthin. Identification of putative C₁₅ intermediates was achieved by either UV spectrophotometry and combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or microchemical analYSis and co-chromatography. Refeeding studies using (±)-[2-¹⁴C]_ abscisic acid diol as substrate revealed that abscisic acid was not metabolized to abscisic acid diol, suggesting that it was/is produced as an intermediate rather than as a catabolite of ABA in this system. Stigmasterol, and to a lesser extent cholesterol reduced conversion of ß-carotene to abscisic acid but did not influence transformation of 1',4'-trans-abscisic acid diol to abscisic acid. AM01618 stimulated fonnation of abscisic acid and appeared to exert its effect at the level of conversion of 1' ,4'-trans-abscisic acid diol. Zeatin and the cytokinin analogue, ancymidol inhibited the biosynthesis of abscisic acid whereas dithiothreitol increased incorporation of label from ß-carotene into abscisic acid suggesting involvement of a cytochrome P450-type mixed function oxidase in this reaction sequence. Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enzyme extract derived from Citrus flavedo revealed the presence of a 53 kD protein with peroxidase activity characteristic of a cytochrome P-450. Abscisic acid biosynthesizing activity was always greater in extracts from acetone powder and abscisic acid biosynthesis was enhanced in the presence of AMO 1618, NAD+, NADH, NADPH, MgCI₂ and Molybdate but was inhibited by FAD. Activity was further enhanced by the addition of (R,S)-abscisic acid as a cold-pool trap and by induding 0.1% w/v of either Tween 20 or Triton X 100 in the extraction buffer. When cis-ß-carotene was used as substrate, no abscisic acid was produced. Conversely when either all-trans-ß-carotene or a mixture of the two isomers was used, incorporation into abscisic acid occurred. Upoxygenase activity in cell-free extracts of Citrus flavedo increased with increasing protein concentration. As the ability of lipoxygenase to make xanthoxin from violaxanthin, had been reported, increased activity in the cell-free system implied that carotenoid deavage was being brought about by a non-haem oxygenase with lipoxygenase-like properties. Reports had implicated phoshorylation in the activation of many catalytic enzymes (Hanks et aI., 1985). Phosphorylation of the enzymes in this cell-free system proved unsuccessful. Further, it had been reported that in vitro phosphorylation of several membrane polypeptides and soluble polypeptides from com, had been promoted by the addition of Ca²₊ In this cell-free system Ca + did not have a stimulatory effect on protein phosphorylation. Dioxygenases generally occur as soluble enzymes, where they catalyse many oxygenation reactions in metabolic pathways. The addition of 2-oxo-glutarate, a requirement of most soluble oxidases, did not affect the activity of the cell-free system.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Abscisic acid, Citrus fruit, Biosynthesis, Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck
Subjects:Q Science > QK Botany
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Botany
Supervisors:Cowan, A. K.
ID Code:3996
Deposited By: Mrs Carol Perold
Deposited On:07 Nov 2012 13:17
Last Modified:07 Nov 2012 13:17
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