Like a Bolt from the Blue: Phthalocyanines in Biomedical Optics

Sekkat, N. and Van den Berg, H. and Nyokong, T. and Lange, N. (2012) Like a Bolt from the Blue: Phthalocyanines in Biomedical Optics. Molecules, 17 (1). pp. 98-144. ISSN 1420-3049

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The purpose of this review is to compile preclinical and clinical results on phthalocyanines (Pcs) as photosensitizers (PS) for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and contrast agents for fluorescence imaging. Indeed, Pcs are excellent candidates in these fields due to their strong absorbance in the NIR region and high chemical and photo-stability. In particular, this is mostly relevant for their in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most Pcs present two major limitations, i.e., a strong tendency to aggregate and a low water-solubility. In order to overcome these issues, both chemical tuning and pharmaceutical formulation combined with tumor targeting strategies were applied. These aspects will be developed in this review for the most extensively studied Pcs during the last 25 years, i.e., aluminium-, zinc- and silicon-based Pcs.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:© 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons attribution license: (
Uncontrolled Keywords:biomedical optics, fluorescence diagnosis, phthalocyanines, NIR dyes; photodynamic therapy
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD1 General
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Chemistry
ID Code:4203
Deposited By: Roelien Clarke
Deposited On:06 Dec 2012 13:44
Last Modified:06 Dec 2012 13:54
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