Studies towards the development of novel multidentate ligands

Magqi, N. (2007) Studies towards the development of novel multidentate ligands. Masters thesis, Rhodes University.

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Abstract

In this study, attention has been given to the design and synthesis of novel multidentate ligands for use in the construction of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts, and their chelating potential has been explored by computer modelling at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level. Both Kemp’s triacid (1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylic acid) and D-(+)-camphor have been investigated as molecular scaffolds for the development of such ligands. However selective elaboration of the functional groups in Kemp’s triacid proved difficult to achieve, and the research has focused on the development of camphor derivatives. The synthesis of the camphor-based ligands has involved C-8 functionalisation and ring-opening of the bicyclic system to afford tridentate products. The formation of 9-iodocamphorquinone bis(ethylene ketal) together with the desired product, the 8-iodo isomer, has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis of both compounds. Formation of the 9-iodo analogue has provided new insights into the intramolecular rearrangement of camphor skeleton, and the mechanistic implications have been assessed by coset analysis. Attempts to effect nucleophilic displacement of the 8-halogeno groups by nucleophilic donor moieties proved unexpectedly difficult and, coupled with the susceptibility of the carbonyl groups to nucleophilic attack, has led to the formation of novel tricyclic products, viz., 1,6-dimethyl-3-(2-pyridylamino)-4-oxatricyclo[4.3.0.0[superscript 3,7]]-2-nonanone and 6,7-dimethyl-3-(2-pyridylamino)-4-oxatricyclo -[4.3.0.0[superscript 3,7]]-2-nonanone. However the diphenylphosphine group was successfully introduced at C-8 and oxidative ring-opening of the camphor skeleton has afforded the tridentate ligands, 2-(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl)-1,2-dimethyl-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid and 2-(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl)-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)1,2-dimethylcyclopentane. One- and two-dimensional NMR and, where appropriate, high-resolution MS methods have been used to characterise the products. Three [superscript 13]C NMR chemical shift prediction programmes, viz., ChemWindow and the MODGRAPH neural network and HOSE (Hierachially Ordered Spherical description of Environment), have been applied to representative compounds to assess their efficacy. While the predicted shifts correlated reasonably well with the experimental data, they proved to be insufficiently accurate to differentiate the isomeric systems examined.

Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information:M.Sc. (Chemistry)
Uncontrolled Keywords:metathesis, Kemp's triacid, camphor, ligands
Subjects:Y Unknown > Subjects to be assigned
Divisions:Faculty > Faculty of Science > Chemistry
Supervisors:Kaye, P.T. (Prof.)
ID Code:867
Deposited By: Rhodes Library Archive Administrator
Deposited On:03 Dec 2007
Last Modified:06 Jan 2012 16:19
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